the 6 moral theories

Terms in this set (20) Consequential . maintains that the right thing to do is to follow the moral rule that would produce the greatest possible good if everyone followed it. The ultimate characteristic of a human being is the lust for power. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is broken down into 3 levels, each consisting of 2 stages. Moral theoriesRelated concepts: Back to the Concept Map. Gilligan concluded through a series of studies that males and females develop different standards of morality. A complete moral theory contains both a theory of the good and a theory of the right. Responsible Dominion Over Material Things 6. Question: How can I as a teacher apply Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development in the classroom? theories base morality on factors other than the results or or outcomes of actions. Metaethics includes moral theories that contain assumptions which answer some metaphysical and epistemological questions about moral goods and values. 10th ed. Good actions = good consequences. Each of these levels are divided into two stages, for a total of six stages (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 375). There are two general types of moral theories: (1) Morality is relative and (2) Morality is universal. Saddle River: Pearson Education International, 2009. Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development. Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. As shown earlier, one helpful way for leading an ethical case study discussion is to give students a guide, such as the “Seven Step Format for Ethical Decision Making” to help them think though the issues presented in a case. Though individuals at this stage can recognize that there are times when human need and the law are conflicted, they believe that it is better if people simply follow the law. Lawrence Kohlberg was inspired by Jean Piaget’s work on moral judgment to create a stage theory of moral development in childhood. The Six Core Moral Values are: 1. Moral Theories. Spell. 2005. By stage four, according to Kohlberg's model, people are concerned with respecting authority, maintaining social order, and doing their duty within society. He then earned his doctorate degree in 1958. In stage one, young children are primarily motivated to behave appropriately to avoid punishment. Perhaps you implement clear punishments, such as loss of privileges, for students who break your classroom rules. Relativism determines morals and ethics according to the society that is being observed. Young students may be at different stages of moral development than their peers, but you can have your students do different classroom activities to help strengthen their moral character. Though his research has been criticized, Kohlberg’s model on the moral development of children has become an important sociological and developmental theory. 352-87. The second level in Kohlberg’s model, Conventional morality, is generally reached between ages 10 and 13, though some individuals never move beyond this level. She holds a B.A. In choosing the moral theory that best “fits,” you are trying to figure out what theory or set of practices guides you through life. "The right" is that which an actor ought to do (has strongest reason to do) in the circumstances of his or her action. While the parlance of everyday language suggests that a theory is just a hunch, it is important to understand that the word has a very different meaning in science. 11th ed. Though individuals at this stage can recognize that there are times when human need and the law are conflicted, they believe that it is better if people simply follow the law. Papalia, Diane E, Sally Wendkos Olds, and Ruth Duskin Feldman. Ethical Theories Ethical theories are often broadly divided into three types: i) Consequentialist theories ii) Non-consequentialist theories iii) Agent-centered theories 7. theory emphasizes the aim of always acting for perceived self-interest usually in the long term even at the expense of others if necessary. Theorie der ethischen Gefühle (engl.The Theory of Moral Sentiments) ist ein erstmals 1759 in London in zwei Bänden veröffentlichtes philosophisches Werk von Adam Smith.Er erklärt darin umfassend, aus welchen Gründen es den Menschen möglich sei, füreinander das Gefühl des Mitgefühls zu empfinden. They include wisdom, prudence, loyalty, honesty, temperance, bravery, magnanimity, and justice. theory emphasizes the aim of always acting for perceived self-interest usually in the long term even at the expense of others if necessary. Flashcards. In stage two, young children become more motivated to behave and follow the rules if they are offered rewards. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/lawrence-kohlberg-soc/. 30 Other Moral Theories: Subjectivism, Relativism, Emotivism, Intuitionism, etc. It looks like your browser needs an update. c) Consequences that result from the action To determine the moral status of an action, utilitarianism has us look at (c), deontology (b), and virtue theory (a). Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. If they move past stage 5 to stage 6, they will only obey moral norms if they agree with them, and ignore moral norms that they disagree with. One of Kohlberg’s best known experiments is known as the Heinz Dilemma. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. STUDY. Stage 3 is concerned with “maintaining mutual relations, approval of others, and the golden rule.” In this stage, children evaluate acts according to the motives behind them and can take circumstances into account. Kohlberg’s theory includes three levels of moral reasoning. Further research has, however, found little support for Gilligan’s claims of a male bias in Kohlberg’s model (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 378). Deontological theories (derived from the Greek word for duty, deon) base morality on certain duties, or obligations, and claim that certain actions are intrinsically right or wrong, that is, right or wrong in themselves, regardless of the consequences that may follow from those actions. Negative Rights: refer to the duty others have to not interfere with actions related to a person's rights 5. They are based on the developed ability of moral reasoning. Scientists can test the theory through emp… Understanding Kohlberg’s theory of moral development can help to teachers to guide the moral development of their students in the classroom. Moral Theory: An Introduction explores some of the most historically important and currently debated moral theories about the nature of the right and good. Neither Kohlberg or Piaget, in their respective and rather parallel theories of child development, pay attention or give respect to the influence of genetic and temperamental differences among children that no doubt play an imphas m uch to do with ortant part in all aspects of development (social, cognitive, moral, etc.). "Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age." 6. Doctors said a new drug might … Not everyone will reach the highest level of moral development. To the average layperson, the word theory means something of a guess. Everyone starts out at the first stage and then develops morally as they mature. Temperamental variations will assuredly influence one's progression through Kohlberg's moral stages and Piaget's cognitive ones. Moral Foundations Theory was created by a group of social and cultural psychologists (see us here) to understand why morality varies so much across cultures yet still shows so many similarities and recurrent themes. German philologist and poet. He enrolled at the University of Chicago and was able to complete his bachelor's degree in only one year, 1948, because his scores on the admissions test were so high. Normative ethical, theories emphasize the aim of producing the greatest possible good for the greatest possible number, maintains that the right thing to do in any situation is the action that produces the greatest possible good for the greatest number. Intelligence also has much to do with self-awareness and reflection, perspective-taking abilities, and critical thinking, which, in turn, play important roles in moral, cognitive, and other aspects of development. Respect for Authority 3. Children in this stage want to help others, can judge the intentions of others, and can develop their own ideas regarding morality. The six (6) stages of Moral Development according to Lawrence Kohlberg can be divided into 3 levels namely: (a) Pre-moral or Pre-conventional, (b) Conventional Morality, and (c) Post-conventional or Principled Morality. Virtue Theory . They follow rules simply out of self-interest (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). 3. . Good actions = good consequences. Self-interest 3. Moral rights allow one to pursue their own interests, and long as these interests don't violate others rights 4. Good moral values allows a person to make the right decisions and improve their interactions with other people. The stages are not based on age. Print. theory emphasizes conduct based upon the perceived order inherent in the universe, theory emphasizes the exclusive protection of and reliance upon basic human rights, based on moral rights and wrong on self-derived, universal, moral duties determined through reason and intuition. sees fairness as the central value in ethics, a fact that most of us have understood since childhood. The three levels that Kohlberg described are Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level 2: Conventional Morality, and Level 3: Post-Conventional morality. There seem to be three components of any action: a) The person who performs the action . She claims that boys have a “justice perspective,” whereas girls have a “care and responsibility perspective” when judging morality. b) The action itself . Case Western Reserve University 89,807 views Using your best critical thinking skills give the strengths and weaknesses of each position. A person in this stage is willing to break the moral norms of their society if they believe that the moral norms are wrong. The theory includes three levels and six stages of moral thinking. Studies clearly demonstrate that both heredity and life experience contribute to account for a person's intellect, which is an important predictor of curiosity and desire to explore and discover. Deontological Theories also suggest that consequences matter, but they’re not the only thing that matters. Moral theology, Christian theological discipline concerned with identifying and elucidating the principles that determine the quality of human behaviour in the light of Christian revelation. "The good" is that which there is strongest reason to want or desire. Perhaps, as a result, moral theories have in recent years become more concerned to accommodate the insights of what were once regarded as rival theories. How does Kohlbers model apply to social work? Kohlberg’s theory includes three levels of moral reasoning. It sounds cliche but you are looking for your moral north star. Fokussiert auf Bestrafung und Gehorsam. Virtue ethicists argue that if a person tries his best to embody these traits, then by definition he will always be in a good position to make moral judgments. The three levels that Kohlberg described are Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level 2: Conventional Morality, and Level 3: Post-Conventional morality. Absent such tendencies, neither Piaget or Kohlberg would have formulated their theories to begin with. Since it was initially proposed, Kohlberg’s theory … Lawrence Kohlberg Level 1: Pre-conventional . This level is comprised of Stage 5 and Stage 6. Diese Stufe von Kohlbergs Theorie der moralischen Entwicklung ist Teil der präkonventionellen Ebene. Kohlberg began work on this topic while being a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in 1958 and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.. Cognitive Theories of Moral Development. Understanding this stage can help you to set a code of conduct for your students to encourage good behavior. The metaphysical questions (such as What are, and how do moral goods and values exist? Match. The perspective of cognitive theories of development is that we develop our sense of right and wrong as our thinking develops. an approach to moral reasoning in which acts are based on a self-determined innate sense of moral duty with no regard for consequences. Kohlberg’s theory, which built on Piaget’s research, profoundly shifted the way in which we view moral development. Answer: Yes and no. Positive Rights: impose a duty on others to provide for your needs to achieve your goals, not just protect your right to pursue them The first includes the theories whose moral injunctions are derived from the immediate reality of human existence, or “man’s nature”—the natural needs or strivings of people, their inborn feelings, or the facts of their lives, considered as the self-evident and extrahistori-cal basis of morality. Kohlberg developed his six-stage theory on moral development while working on his doctorate degree. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors. It may be that that trend will lead to the emergence of some broader, unifying, theory. Lawrence Kohlberg is best known for his model on the stages of moral development. theories base morality on the results and outcomes of behaviors. Answer: Understanding Kohlberg's theory of moral development can help you to understand your students, and help you to guide them in their moral development. The first stage of this level, or Stage 1, is described as “orientation toward punishment and obedience.” Children in this stage tend to obey rules only to avoid punishment. Another problem with Kohlberg’s research is that he focused primarily on the development of children in American, and it is still unclear as to whether or not his model applies to people in other societies (Macoinis 76). BOOKRAGS STAFF. Macionis, John J. In Stage 6, individuals are more concerned with the “morality of universal ethical principles.” In this stage, individuals do what they think is right, even if it is in conflict with the law. A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable. Ashaleon. Level 1: Pre-Conventional Morality Level 1, or Pre-Conventional Morality, typically seen in young children between the ages of 4 and 10 years old. Hier stellen wir fest, dass das Individuum alle moralische Verantwortung an eine Autorität delegiert. Ethics (4) Metaethics; Moral theories (currently viewing) Consequentialism; Deontology; Virtue ethics; Other moral theories; Moral uncertainty; Theories of value (3) Well-being; Moral patienthood; Non-wellbeing sources of value 70-95. His research involved studying American boys. His research has profoundly shifted the way we look at moral development. It might be true, or it might not be. Is built on the theory of motivation called psychological egoism. Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, December 12 from 3–4 PM PST. Each level contains two of the six stages of moral development. Ethics Workshop Part 1 - Overview of Moral Reasoning and Ethical Theory - Duration: 59:25. "Lawrence Kohlberg". THIS ASSIGNMENT IS APA FORMAT AND NO LESS THAN 300 WORDS. At stage 5, the first stage of level 3, people come to value the will of the majority and the well-being of society above all else. Society: The Basics. But the word has a very different meaning in the realm of science when researchers are talking about empirical research that is back by scientific evidence. As before, understanding these broad positions is crucial to understanding and critiquing the specific metaethical theories outlined later in this chapter. After World War II, he helped to smuggle Jewish refugees past the British blockage of Palestine and in 1969, he returned to Israel to study the morality of young people in its collective settlements. He was the assistant professor of psychology at Yale University from 1956 until 1961 when he spent a year at the Advanced Center for Behavioral Science from 1961 until 1962. Stufe 4: Soziale Ordnung. theory bases ethics on the values of justice and fairness, providing processes to help people understand what an ideal fair solution would be. Lawrence Kohlberg's theory claims that our development of moral reasoning happens in six stages: 1. By stage three, which most children reach between the ages of 10 and 13, children begin to think more about other people around them, and how their behavior affects other people, and how other people perceive them. The Kantian Moral Theory and Golden Rule are examples of Deontological Theories. It has been recently found that moral judgment consists in concurrent evaluations of three different components that align with precepts from three dominant moral theories (virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism): the character of a person (Agent-component, A); their actions (Deed-component, D); and the consequences brought about in the situation (Consequences-component, C). At this stage, people act according to their internalized standards of morality (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). Write. Ethical Theories and Their Use in Ethics Education. Each stage represents a graduation in the level of moral development, with stage one being the least moral and stage six being the most moral. Allow time for group projects and activities to give students at different stages of development the opportunity to work together and to learn how their behavior affects others in a social context. Kohlberg's research has been criticized by other researchers, most notably by Carol Gilligan, who noted that Kohlberg focused exclusively on male children in his studies of moral reasoning. The first level, Pre-Conventional morality is typically found in children between the ages of 4 and 10 years old. Learn. The second stage, Stage 2, is “instrumental purpose and exchange.” In this stage, children’s actions are based on consideration for what others can do for them. Respect for the Dignity of Human Sexuality 5. Kohlbergs Theorie der moralischen Entwicklung 1. For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. The second key fork in the road that separates metaethical theories is the choice between Moral Realism and Moral Anti-Realism (as with Cognitivism, the “Moral” prefix is assumed from hereon). Egoism. theories base morality on the results and outcomes of behaviors. In this stage, an act is considered wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law. Upper. In this experiment, Kohlberg presented a story about a man named Heinz: Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Love of God 2. I have not got all the six stages of moral development I saw only three levels were can I get the level 4-6. PLAY. Obedience and Punishment, 2. Our understanding of human development relies on those who lay the foundation for further examination, which is what my comments are inviting. Children also come into the world with different temperaments, including impulse control, ability to be soothed, patience, and, as with intelligence, a propensity to be curious and an exploring nature. Print. This level includes Stage 3 and Stage 4. Humans have rights, if someone has the right to something then others have a duty to avoid violating that right. Each of these levels are divided into two stages, for a total of six stages (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 375). Boston: McGraw, 2009. So up until stage 5, a person becomes more likely to obey the moral norms of their society as they mature morally. Moral theories allow us to see the implications of the judgments that these (and other fundamental concerns) are each important in moral reasoning. Test. Lawrence Kohlberg was an important figure is sociology and psychology. Which of these would best represent your own views? Created by. He spent the next ten years as a professor of education and social psychology (Bookrags). Because so few people attain Level 3, Kohlberg questioned the validity of this level, though he later proposed an additional seventh stage, which he described as the “cosmic” stage, in which individuals are able to consider the effect of their actions on the universe as a whole (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377). Explain your position with logic and reasoning. Because of this, she criticizes Kohlberg’s model for focusing on the male “justice perspective” and treating male rule-based reasoning as morally superior (Macoinis 76). The primary motivation for the pre-conventional level is to avoid punishment. The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning. If a person attains stage 6, and not everyone does, people become more concerned with the “morality of universal ethical principles.” In this stage, people begin to do what they believe is right, even if it conflicts with the law or the moral norms of their society. Each level includes two stages. This level consists of Stage 1 and Stage 2. Researchers now study how individuals base moral judgments on their understanding of the social world, rather than seeing morality as simply the attainment of “control over self-gratifying impulses” (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377). Gravity. contractarianism. He then became an assistant, and then associate professor of psychology and human development at the University of Chicago from 1962 until 1967. His theory was inspired by the research of Jean Piaget and has changed the way sociologists and psychologists look at moral development. It is distinguished from the philosophical discipline of ethics, which relies upon the authority of reason At this stage, you can help to strengthen your students' moral character by allowing them to help you to create a code of conduct, thereby letting them be responsible, in part, for the classroom rules that they will be expected to follow. October 29 2009. At this stage, people act according to their internalized standards of morality. Piaget's two stages of moral development were the basis for Kohlberg's six stages (Bookrags). Selfless Love for People 4. Stage 4 refers to “social concern and conscience.” At this stage, individuals are concerned with respecting authority, maintaining social order, and doing their duty within society. in Creative Writing and English. This is true to a point. Question: The more morally mature a person becomes, the more likely the person is to obey the moral norms of his or her society. What makes a choice or an action right is its conformity with a moral norm. Oh no! Kohlberg’s model for moral development and moral reasoning, while similar to Piaget’s, is more complex. This theory provides meaning to your considered moral beliefs. "Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence." Kohlberg was born in Bronxville, New York in 1927. Stage 5 is the stage concerned with “morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law.” In this stage, individuals value the will of the majority and the well-being of society. Kohlberg became interested in Jean Piaget's theories of moral development in children and adolescents while studying for his doctorate degree. According to Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development, there are 6 stages of moral development, known as Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Deontological Theories are duty based theories that share a similar general idea that there are universal moral rules in which some actions are always wrong, despite the consequences. My comments are not intended to diminish the work of these accomplished men. In this stage, an act is considered wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). Interperson... Obedience and Punishment, 2. These other factors can include duties, obligations, rights, laws of nature, or social contracts. Jan Franciszek Jacko 92. The final level, Post-Conventional morality, is reached in early adolescence or young adulthood, though some individuals never reach this level. Stufe 6: Universelle Prinzipien. The levels are called preconventional morality, conventional morality, and postconventional morality. Is this true? The guiding light that orients your moral universe. Consider implementing a system to reward students who follow the rules and who exhibit helpful behaviors in the classroom. focuses primarily on personal excellence by doing the right thing. Human Development. Kohlberg’s theories of moral development are divided into three levels that consist of a total of six stages. Stufe 2: Individualismus & Austausch. Jennifer Wilber works as an ESL instructor, substitute teacher, and freelance writer. 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